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Types of Speech語言的類型

來源:apple 編輯:apple 時間:2017-12-16
Types of Speech語言的類型

Types of Speech
  Standard usage includes those words and expressions understood, used, and accepted by a majority of the speakers of a language in any situation regardless of the level of formality. As such, these words and expressions are well defined and listed in standard dictionaries. Colloquialisms, on the other hand, are familiar words and idioms that are understood by almost all speakers of a language and used in informal speech or writing, but not considered appropriate for more formal situations. Almost all idiomatic expressions are colloquial language. Slang, however, refers to words and expressions understood by a large number of speakers but not accepted as good, formal usage by the majority. Colloquial expressions and even slang may be found in standard dictionaries but will be so identified. Both colloquial usage and slang are more common in speech than in writing.
  Colloquial speech often passes into standard speech. Some slang also passes into standard speech, but other slang expressions enjoy momentary popularity followed by obscurity. In some cases, the majority never accepts certain slang phrases but nevertheless retains them in their collective memories. Every generation seems to require its own set of words to describe familiar objects and events. It has been pointed out by a number of linguists that three cultural conditions are necessary for the creation of a large body of slang expressions. First, the introduction and acceptance of new objects and situations in the society; second, a diverse population with a large number of subgroups; third, association among the subgroups and the majority population.
  Finally, it is worth noting that the terms "standard" "colloquial" and "slang" exist only as abstract labels for scholars who study language. Only a tiny number of the speakers of any language will be aware that they are using colloquial or slang expressions. Most speakers of English will, during appropriate situations, select and use all three types of expressions.

語言的類型
  標準用法包括所有語言使用者在任何情況下理解、使用和接受的詞語,不管其形式如何。因此,這些詞語在標準詞典中有很好的定義和羅列。俗語,另一方面,常用的詞匯和成語,理解幾乎所有講這種語言和正式的口頭或書面中使用,卻不適用于更正式的場合。幾乎所有的慣用語都是口語。然而,俚語指的是大量的說話人所理解的詞語,而不是大多數人所接受的良好的正式用法。俗語,甚至俚語,都可以在標準詞典中找到,但會被識別出來。口語用法和俚語在言語中比在書面語中更常見。
  口語通常會變成標準語。有些俚語也會變成標準的語言,但其他俚語只會一時流行,而后默默無聞。在某些情況下,大多數人從不接受某些俚語,但仍保留在他們的集體記憶中。每一代人似乎都需要用自己的一套詞匯來描述熟悉的對象和事件。許多語言學家指出,創造大量俚語的必要條件有三種文化條件。第一,引進和接受社會中的新事物和情況;第二,有大量子群的多樣化人口;第三、子群與多數人口之間的聯系。
  最后,值得注意的是,“標準”、“口語”和“俚語”這一術語只存在于研究語言的學者的抽象標簽中。只有極少數的語言使用者會意識到他們在使用俗語或俚語。大多數講英語的人都會在適當的場合選擇和使用這三種表達方式。
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